Monday, May 25, 2020

Analysis Of The Lottery By Shirley Jackson - 839 Words

â€Å"The Lottery†, a short story by Shirley Jackson, is about a lottery that takes place in a small village. The story starts off with the whole village gathering in the village square, where Mr. Summers holds the lottery. Once everyone gathers, each family draws a slip of paper out of an old black box, and the family with the black mark on their paper does it again. This time though, each individual family member older than 3 years of age re-draws a slip of paper and the person with the black mark on their paper gets picked as the â€Å"lucky winner† of the lottery. In this short story, when Tessie Hutchinson is declared â€Å"winner† of the lottery, her reward is certainly not a million dollars, but instead, being stoned to death. The whole village†¦show more content†¦He says, â€Å"Pack of crazy fools,† †¦ â€Å"There’s always been a lottery (lines 255-263, p. 22).† He doesn’t want to stop doing the lottery not becau se it is a tradition with a valid cause, but only because there has always been a lottery. The village is so clueless about the actual rituals in the lottery, that they don’t even know the reason behind the lottery. There is no doubt that the village has forgotten the purpose of the lottery. In fact, not only is the original paraphernalia forgotten, but much of the ritual has also been forgotten. In support of that, the text states, â€Å"Although the villagers had forgotten the ritual and lost the original black box, they still remembered to use stones (p. 28, lines 408-410).† This proves that the village blindly does the lottery as a check mark that they followed a tradition. They stoned someone to death, and now the lottery is over. For this reason, the village doesn’t remember any of the actual ritual, but they only remember what happens at the end of the lottery. Many forgotten rituals are mentioned throughout the short story. For example, it is mentioned that, â€Å"Because so much of the ritual had been forgotten or discarded, Mr. Summers had been successful in having slips of paper substituted for the chips of wood that had been used for generations (lines 93-96, p. 16).â €  Other rituals and details mentioned somewhere in the story include: â€Å"a perfunctory, tuneless chant that had been rattled off duly each yearShow MoreRelatedAn Analysis Of The Lottery By Shirley Jackson744 Words   |  3 Pagesâ€Å"The Lottery† - For Analysis 1. There are multiple examples to suggest that â€Å"The Lottery† is a ritualistic ceremony. In several instances â€Å"The Lottery† is referred to as a ritual: â€Å" much of the ritual had been forgotten..† and â€Å"†¦because so much of the ritual had been forgotten†¦Ã¢â‚¬ . In addition, the ceremony happens annually on June 27th, a t0:00 a.m., suggesting a ceremonial quality. This happens with such regularity that the citizens â€Å"†¦only half listened to the directions†¦Ã¢â‚¬ . This ceremonyRead MoreThe Lottery By Shirley Jackson Analysis732 Words   |  3 PagesFollowing other people may have a positive or negative effect, but when it reaches a certain point where you blindly follow others it may not have a positive outcome. â€Å"The Lottery† made by Shirley Jackson is about a small community of villagers that gather together every year to perform a tradition. All of the villagers gather together and draw small sl ips of paper from a black wooden box, whoever draws the first slip with the black dot on it, their family has to draw first. Now all of the membersRead More Analysis of The Lottery by Shirley Jackson Essay693 Words   |  3 PagesAnalysis of The Lottery by Shirley Jackson â€Å"The Lottery† by Shirley Jackson was written in 1948. The story takes place in a village square of a town on June 27th. The author does not use much emotion in the writing to show how the barbaric act that is going on is look at as normal. This story is about a town that has a lottery once a year to choose who should be sacrificed, so that the town will have a plentiful year for growing crops. Jackson has many messages about human nature in this shortRead MoreLiterary Analysis Of The Lottery By Shirley Jackson910 Words   |  4 PagesLiterary Analysis of the Short Story â€Å"The Lottery† by Shirley Jackson Shirley Jackson explores the subject of tradition in her short story â€Å"The Lottery†. A short story is normally evaluated based on its ability to provide a satisfying and complete presentation of its characters and themes. Shirley describes a small village that engages in an annual tradition known as â€Å"the lottery†. Narrating the story from a third person point of view, Shirley uses symbolism, foreshadowing and suspense to illustrateRead MoreEssay on The Lottery by Shirley Jackson: an Analysis1522 Words   |  7 PagesKouyialis EN102: Composition II Professor Eklund The Lottery by Shirley Jackson: An Analysis The short story â€Å"The Lottery† by Shirley Jackson was written in 1948 and takes place in a small town, on the 27th of June. In this story, the lottery occurs every year, around the summer solstice. All families gather together to draw slips of paper from a black box. When reading this story, it is unclear the full premise of the lottery until near the end. The heads of households are the firstRead MoreLiterary Analysis Of The Lottery By Shirley Jackson1534 Words   |  7 Pages Literary Analysis: â€Å"The Lottery† by Shirley Jackson â€Å"The Lottery† by Shirley Jackson is a short story written in 1948. Due to World War II ending around this time, her story took some strong criticism. The people at that time wanted uplifting stories, and this story is the very opposite because of its underlying theme of tradition and conformity. â€Å"The Lottery† shows that no matter the tradition or belief, people will not stray from their daily routine because humans are creatures of habitRead MoreAnalysis Of The Lottery By Shirley Jackson773 Words   |  4 PagesIn the short story, The Lottery, written by Shirley Jackson, is about a small village or some type of society with a yearly tradition called, the lottery. From what the reader may read online, they may find out that during the time period Jackson wrote this, she was interested in magic and witchcraft. Not only that she was also rumored to have gotten rocks thrown at her by children who believed she was a witch. One may also say, that the story wa s absolutely unique and the ending completely shockingRead MoreAnalysis Of The Lottery By Shirley Jackson1060 Words   |  5 Pagesthird point of view about other but our view are mostly to always limited, not knowing everything. In a story called â€Å"Charles† by Shirley Jackson, the author creates a limited first point of view of Laurels mother where the reader reads and understand only what Laurie’s mother understand and see. In the other story also written by Shirley Jackson called â€Å"The Lottery†, the story proceed at a limited third point of view where the reader understands more ideas. Although each storied have a differentRead MoreAnalysis of The Lottery by Shirley Jackson993 Words   |  4 PagesSpanish author, When we blindly adopt a religion, a political system, a literary dogma, we become automatons. We cease to grow. Shirley Jackson was born in 1919 in San Francisco, California to Leslie and Geraldine Jackson. She is most well known for her s hort story titled â€Å"The Lottery† which was first published in The New Yorker to overwhelming and mixed reviews. The lottery, as portrayed in the short story, is a religious, annual ceremony in the afternoon of June 27. This event is said to be olderRead MoreThe Lottery By Shirley Jackson Analysis802 Words   |  4 PagesIf everyone else was doing something, would you? Or maybe if someone needed to be stood up for, would you have their back? In The Lottery, people do follow other people blindly. And the consequences are devastating. But in First They Came, not having someone’s back might get you in the same position†¦ The Lottery by Shirley Jackson is a story that takes place in a small village on a warm summer day. Little boy’s run around in boisterous play, collecting small stones into a pile. As the adults gather

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Effects of User’s Perceived Security on their Usage of...

With the innovative changes in everyday life since the creation of the internet, the banking sector is no exception. The creation of value-added services through the internet such as online transactions and online banking, the traditional landscape of banking has been transformed to new lengths. Day to day banking and similar financial transactions through the digital medium have positively affected the live of many due to the derived benefits such convenience to complete financial transactions at their leisure. Banking institutes are often associated with having high levels of trust in relation security and privacy factors with regard to its physical environment. However this perceived notion has yet to be associated to the digital†¦show more content†¦As a result private and commercial users of such facilities are required to place more emphasis on safeguarding their financial well-being. Breaches in confidential data security and financial theft through online banking facilities are of major concern to financial institutes. Concerns of data security and identity theft are of utmost importance given the increased trend towards mobile banking. Continuity and evolution of online banking services depends on financial institutes ability to convince its users that the same or similar security mechanisms in relation to the physical banking setting applies to the digital realm. As a result there is a need for financial institutes to create a balance between security, trust as well as usability in relation to online banking facilities. Consumers’ trust has been identified as a vital element for the success of electronic banking. Due to the uncertain nature perceived by online banking users, such issues affect trust; particularly security and privacy of data have an impact on the development of electronic banking services (Maijala, V. (2004)). The hype and excitement one feels when purchasing one feels when purchasing products online is often diminished when payment is about to be made largely due to their concernsShow MoreRelatedCommerce Is A System Or An Environment That Affects The Business Prospects Of Economics4541 Words   |  19 Pagesthrough the aids to trade. Consumer get information about different goods through advertisement and salesman ship . 4. Generals employment opportunities The growth of commerce, and industry and trade bring about the growth of agencies of trade such as banking, transport, ware housing, advertising etc. These agencies needs people to look after their functioning 5. Increase nation income and wealth When products increase, at a same time that national income also increase. For the developed country manufacturingRead MoreA Study of How to Promote the Use of Mobile Payment4519 Words   |  19 Pagesuse of mobile payment This example is for discussion, not used as a model of good report Table of Contents 1 Title 1 2 Aim 1 3 Objectives 1 4 Background 2 5 Critical review of relevant literature 3 5.1. Basic Mobile Payment Types 3 5.1.1. Mobile Fees Account Payment 3 5.1.2. Bank Card Mobile Payment 3 5.1.3. Token based Mobile Payment 4 5.2. Mobile payment choice 5 5.3. Factors that influence mobile payment 5 5.3.1. Stability of mobile network facilities 6 5.3.2Read MoreOnline Banking42019 Words   |  169 PagesInternet Banking Table of Contents Chapter–1– Introduction 0 Chapter–2– Internet Banking a new medium 7 Chapter--3 - International experience 19 Chapter -4 -The Indian Scenario 33 Chapter- 5- Types of risks associated with Internet banking 41 Chapter- 6- Technology And Security Standards For Internet - Banking 49 Chapter -7 - Legal Issues involved in Internet Banking 74 Chapter- 8- Regulatory and supervisory concerns 84 Chapter–9 - Recommendations 98 Annexure 1 111 Annexure 2 112 Read MoreFactors Influencing the Adoption of Mobile Banking49642 Words   |  199 PagesFactors influencing the use of Mobile Banking: The case of SMS-based Mobile Banking offered CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Mobile banking is an application of mobile computing which provides customers with the support needed to be able to bank anywhere, anytime using a mobile handheld device and a mobile service such as text messaging (SMS). Mobile banking removes space and time limitations from banking activities such as checking account balances, or transferring money from one account to another. InRead MoreFactors Influencing Enhanced Data Security Essay9883 Words   |  40 Pages Factors influencing enhanced data security in Management Information Systems of Commercial Banks in Nairobi, Kenya James MurageKweri D53/CTY/PT/20805/2010 August, 2012 DECLARATION I declare that this is my original work and has not been submitted in any other university or institution for examination. Signature Date (James MurageKweri) (D53/CTY/PT/20805/2010) This research proposal has been presented for examinationRead MoreFactors Influencing the Adoption of Mobile Banking49628 Words   |  199 PagesFactors influencing the use of Mobile Banking: The case of SMS-based Mobile Banking offered CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Mobile banking is an application of mobile computing which provides customers with the support needed to be able to bank anywhere, anytime using a mobile handheld device and a mobile service such as text messaging (SMS). Mobile banking removes space and time limitations from banking activities such as checking account balances, or transferring money from one account to anotherRead MoreInternet and Ebusiness Essay10788 Words   |  44 PagesOn Internet And E Business Topic: Understanding the scope of E Business Prepared By : Fayza Firoz Ziaul Asif Chowdhury HND- In Business (Finance) FutureED Corporation Prepared For : Fayza Firoz Course Instructor of Internet And E Business FutureED Corporation I am very thankful to everyone who all supported me, for I have completed my assignment on Internet and E business effectively and moreover on time. I am equally grateful to my teacher MrsRead MoreNon-Store Retailing9425 Words   |  38 Pagesretailing is a form of retailing in which sales are made to consumers without using physical stores. The non-store retailers are known by medium they use to communicate with their customers, such as direct marketing, direct selling and vending machines or e-tailing. Non store retailing is patronised to time conscious consumers and consumers who cant easily go to stores, or compulsive buyers. Most non-store retailers offer consumers the convenience of buying 24 hours a day seven days a week and deliveryRead MoreManagement Information Systems22991 Words   |  92 Pagesdigital dashboard to provide managers with real-time information such as customer complaints is an example of: A) improved flexibility. B) improved decision-making. C) improved efficiency. D) customer and supplier intimacy. 7) The move of retail banking to use ATMs after Citibank unveiled its first ATMs illustrates the information system business objective of: A) improved efficiency. B) customer and supplier intimacy. C) survival. D) competitive advantage. 8) An information system can be definedRead MoreAmazon Strategy15987 Words   |  64 Pages...... 68 2 1.0 Executive Summary This report has been designed to provide with a strategic plan for their global operations within the e-retailing industry. is a leading e-retailer and is a globally recognised brand, but is facing increasing competition from bricks and mortar companies setting up an online presence and current eretailers increasing their geographical and product scope. The internal and external analysis reveals that has been under-performing

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Legalization Of All Drugs - 1588 Words

The legalization of all drugs considered illegal in the United States today would do more than any other act to eradicate current social and political problems. Though many would naturally think otherwise, legalizing drugs like marijuana, ecstasy, meth, cocaine, heroin, mushrooms, LSD, and DMT would cripple organized crime, majorly reduce death and injury from drug use, unclog the court system, and make these drugs much safer to use. Contrary to popular belief, the legalization of all drugs would make the streets a much safer place. Addicts must pay hundreds of times the actual cost of production because of the risk dealers and manufacturers have in production and distribution, so they often need to resort to crime to pay for their addiction. If drugs were legalized, the price would greatly reduce and addicts won’t have to commit crime to support their habit. Some addicts don’t make enough money to purchase their expensive fix, and feel they have no other choice but to break the law. If dugs were legalized and regulated, the price would go down drastically because there would be no more risk involved. A few grams of cocaine could be as easy to obtain and as affordable as a pack of cigarettes. Addicts would no longer need to commit crime to obtain their drugs. Some would say though, that drug related offences would still exist. For example, if drugs were legal for anyone over 21, there would be a dem and for those younger, and drug related crime would still exist. Is this notShow MoreRelatedLegalization of All Drugs1845 Words   |  8 PagesLegalize Drugs! I know what youre thinking, are you crazy! The debate over the legalization of drugs continues to disturb the American public. Such an issue stirs up moral and religious beliefs, beliefs that are contrary to what Americans should believe. I ask all of you to please keep an open mind and hear me out on this very controversial subject. All of us have in some way or another been affected by drug, whether it is a family member or the economic burden on society. Americans often takeRead More Legalization of All Drugs Essay1831 Words   |  8 PagesLegalization of All Drugs Legalize Drugs! I know what you’re thinking, are you crazy! The debate over the legalization of drugs continues to disturb the American public. Such an issue stirs up moral and religious beliefs, beliefs that are contrary to what Americans should believe. I ask all of you to please keep an open mind and hear me out on this very controversial subject. All of us have in some way or another been affected by drug, whether it is a family member or the economic burden onRead MoreLegalization of all Drugs - Persuasion Essay1645 Words   |  7 Pages Legalization of all Drugs - Persuasion Essay â€Å"I ve never had a problem with drugs. I ve had problems with the police.† This quote, told by Keith Richards, represents a major problem affecting the rights of the American people. Contrary to what former presidents Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan and much of the American population believed, the effects of illegalizing drugs and declaring the â€Å"War on Drugs† have been far more detrimental to the wellbeing of the nation than if all of the drugs onRead MorePosition Paper-Khadijah Shabazz1222 Words   |  5 PagesUniversity 9/20/2015 The legalization of drugs is one of the most controversial and debated topics of the 21st century. There are both negative and positive reasons to legalize them as well as negative and positive reasons to keep them prohibited. According to LEAP, Law Enforcement Against Prohibition, drug prohibition is the true cause of much of the social and personal damage that has historically been attributed to drug use. It is prohibition that makes these drugs so valuable – while givingRead MoreEssay about Drug Legalization1209 Words   |  5 Pages Drug Legalization Strong drug enforcement in the United States is correlated with the reduction in crime , drug use, and drug addiction growth rates. The impact on tougher drug sanctions has been overshadowed by a myth that U.S. drug enforcement has become too lenient. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;This myth has been promoted by the multi-million dollar pro-drug legalization lobby, civil libertarians, and misguided academic researchers to the public with limited review and challenge. Attacks onRead MoreThe Social Benefits of Legalization of Marijuana1459 Words   |  6 Pagesthe hemp plant.†(Marijuana, 317). Today in most countries soft narcotics and especially narcotics like marijuana are illegal. Marijuana is a misunderstood drug that is thought of as dangerous but it isn’t. Because of people’s ignorance and gullibility marijuana has become illegal for all the wrong reasons and should be re-examined for legalization. Society today cannot understand that there has been a culture behind marijuana for many centuries, and has been used by different ethnicities, for religiousRead MoreShould Drug Legalization Increase The Crime Rate?863 Words   |  4 PagesWill drug legalization increase the crime rate in our society? The issue of drug legalization in the United State is a complex one not only because crime related to drug abuse in the United States has fluctuated considerably over the past thirty years and that policy makers haven’t find an effective way to address this issue, but also because public polls about marijuana legalization has experienced dramatic shift. A recent survey conducted about marijuana legalization in the U.S found out thatRead More Drug Legalization Essay1115 Words   |  5 PagesDrug Legalization Drug legalization has become a great issue among Americans for many years, and there have also been those that try to stop that legalization. The article, â€Å"Legalizing Drugs is Not the Solution† by Gerald W. Lynch, has a good argument based on facts and incidents that have occurred from drug use. In this article a person thinks twice about what they are really doing when they use drugs, and it is clear as to why legalizing drugs would not be a logical solution As spokenRead MoreShould Drugs Be Legalized? Essay1203 Words   |  5 PagesThe legalization of drugs is among the most polarizing issues faced by the US government today. The increase in organized crime related to drug trafficking has forced authorities to reevaluate their stance on their legalization issue, and yet there are those in the civil society that oppose such legalization vehemently. Though there is evidence that many of the banned and scheduled substances can be attributed to a range of health benefits and treatment of diseases, the American experience withRead MoreContinuous Debates about the Legalization of Marijuana Essay1214 Words   |  5 PagesIntroduction Legalization of marijuana is a notorious topic in the world today, and like any other contentious subject, it has number of support, and opposition. The valid points for both sides are plentiful, and each side feels very strong about their position on the topic. Marijuana is a psychoactive drug used for medicinal purposes, and as an illicit drug (Earleywine 34). Marijuana is the most commonly used drug in the world today. Marijuana has a psychoactive effect, and this has made it recognized

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Purpose of Alternative Dispute Resolution ACAS

Question: Evaluate the purpose of Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) and, with particular reference to the services provided by Acas, assess to what extent it is a successful means of resolving disputes outside the formal judicial process? Answer: Alternative dispute resolution can be termed as a process of resolving disputes without walking into the way of litigation. If the parties to the dispute are in agreement with the award of the alternative dispute resolution then no public court may disregard the award presented or neither they will question the validity of ADR. It is a new process of dispute resolution where the process takes place outside the court. There are two most popular process of dispute resolution, namely arbitration and mediation. Disputes are resolved through negotiations at the very first attempt. In the process of alternative dispute resolutions an arrangement is created between the parties to meet each other and take voluntary initiatives to settle the disputes among themselves. The main objective and also the benefit of this form of dispute resolution is that it allows the parties to the dispute to reach an amicable settlement through negotiations (Atlas, Huber and Trachte-Huber, 2000). The process of mediation is also regarded as a type of alternative dispute resolution, where there remain mediators, who are regarded as trained individuals and are efficient in conducting negotiations. The mediators are responsible for arranging a meeting between the parties who are in dispute with each other to settle their disputes and the mediators also takes the responsibility to reach an amicable settlement of disputes among the parties. There are a long range of cases where the settlement of the disputes is done through mediation. Disputes involving investors and stock brokers are generally settled through mediations (Ware, 2001). Arbitration is considered another process of dispute resolution, which is regarded as process of trial which is simple in nature and involves regulations relating to evidence which in a simplified form. An panel of arbitrators, known as arbitral panel helps in conducting and completing an arbitration panel. The arbitral panel is constructed by the selection of a single arbitrator through mutual consent or through the selection of arbitrators from both ends who will conduct the process of arbitration among the parties. On the completion of the arbitration process the arbitrators or arbitrator provide award, which the decision and if both parties to the conflict are in agreement with the award presented by the arbitral panel then the award becomes binding (Davidson, 2000). The main purposes of alternative dispute resolution process are to reach a settlement of disputes without the help of the judicial mechanism and also to utilize various methods, which are informal in nature and are related to the judicial mechanisms (Dickinson, 2014). The purposes of alternative dispute resolution also include settlement of disputes through certain independent process that form part of the alternative dispute resolution process such as mediation processes and ombuds offices (Freeman, 1995). The purposes of the alternative dispute resolution process is regarded as beneficial as the ADR helps in settling disputes in a faster way, it is also regarded as a processes which is cheaper in nature, ADR processes helps in identification of practical solutions to the problems, for settling disputes through ADR the parties are not required to fulfill numerous formalities. The ADR process calls for an amicable solution of the disputes among the parties to the disputes this helps in settling the disputes in an easier way without moving to the court and expending huge fees for trial and at the same time this process helps in maintaining good relationship among the parties as they negotiates with each other (Bevan, 1992). In this regards it is important to mention the dispute resolution services provided by Acas to maintain employee relations within a concern. At present the cases of employee disputes are higher in number and it has been found that bigger issues are created by smaller conflicts in the workplace and that has become curse for numerous organizations as those conflicts give birth to bigger disagreements among the employee groups or between the employee and the employer groups (Hayford, 2000). This judicial processes of resolving such disputes are time consuming and costly in nature as huge expenses of litigations are incurred by different organizations. Acas plays a major role in settling those disputes through independent and confidential ways and the same will also promote healthy employee relations. Acas has been successful in providing alternative dispute resolution services and controlling conflicts successfully for a long time and it also fetches information, guidance and training t hat are effective in eliminating any further issues. Moreover, Acas provides advisory services to the management of various concern regarding tackling disputes before they become industrial conflicts, Acas arranges meetings for employees and their employers and also provides essential services to different companies that will lead them to detect issues and mitigate them immediately (Hooker, Usher and Robinson, 2007). Acas settles two different types of disputes namely, individual disputes and collective disputes. Acas provides guidelines and solutions to cases that would otherwise have been filled in the court of law. Acas provides early reconciliation services to help those cases solve without undergoing any time consuming and costly judicial process. And the parties can avail the services of Acas till the case is filled with the employment tribunal. It helps in settling the disputes quicker and with lesser cost. Acas provides the services relating to reconciliation to both the parties to the dispute, where the conciliators being an independent individual collects the opinions of both sides relating to the dispute and help them in reaching a solution. The parties to the conflict can file the same for reconciliation with Acas before lodging the case to the employment tribunal, Acas takes the responsibility to provide early reconciliation services for a period that can be extended up to a month. T here remains a limitation relating to the time of filling the case with the employment tribunal but when the same is lodged with Acas for early reconciliation the limit gets paused. On the completion of the process regarding early reconciliation Acas provides a certificate to both the parties that contain a number (Brenninkmeijer, 2006). Acas also provides services for settling collective disputes. Collective disputes can be regarded as a situation where there is a conflict existent between employee and employer groups. Acas helps in these situations to resolve the issues between different groups. Reconciliation services by Acas staff who is experienced in this field and the conciliator acts as an independent third party and considers the opinions provided by both the employer and the employee representative and helps to find out the pros and cons relating to the conflict and thereby enabling both the parties to reach an amicable solution (Grenig, 2005). Acas mostly provides conciliation services for settling collective issues relating to pay, restructuring of businesses, terms etc. Acas helps in solving collective disputes in two different ways, namely, collective arbitration and collective mediation. While conducting collective arbitrations it enables the different parties to the conflict to provide their consent relating to reference for arbitration and at the same the procedure for conducting the arbitration will also be cleared to the parties, Acas takes the responsibility to appoint an independent arbitrator who will provide the arbitral award to the parties in dispute with 21 days of the hearing (Fellas, 2011). Acas helps in solving disputes among different parties who lacks solution for such disputes through the process of collective mediation also. This is regarded as an entirely voluntary process and is kept confidential. The mediator appointed by Acas takes the initiative to undergo a discussion with the parties to the dispute to identify the main issues and enables the parties to grab a clear understanding relating to the issues and also communicates the ways to solve such issues (Mele, 2011). While resolving issues among different parties Acas remains impartial and the services can only be offered to different parties if they both generates an opinion to undergo the process of resolution. the conciliation services offered by Acas to settle varied types of disputes is entirely based on the impartiality and ability to maintain confidentiality of Acas (Mele, 2011). Explain why European Union law takes precedence over domestic law in the United Kingdom. European Union law is regarded as supreme to the laws prevailing in the member states. The EU law precedes the provisions of the constitutional law of its member states and any provision relating to the law prevailing in the member states which are in contradiction with the law of EU will be disregarded straight away (Horspool, 2006). There are numerous cases that has helped to establish the fact that the EU law precedes the laws relating to the member states. It was found in the case of International Handelsgesellschaft case that the provisions of EU law are supreme to the law relating to Germany. Germany is one of the member states of the European Union, an issue evolved that indicated conflict between the community law and the constitutional law in Germany. The verdict given by the German Court was not to involve the laws relating to European Union (Kaczorowska, 2009). In contrary the European Court of Justice fetched its verdict against the German Court and declared that there is no authority of any national court belonging to a member state to review the laws of European Union. And it also declared that no constitution relating to any member state has the authority to assess the validity of the laws relating to European Union. Another case projected the supremacy of the EU laws over the laws relating to the member states can be regarded as the case of Simmenthal. In this case the ECJ stated the doctrine of Direct effect of the provisions of the laws relating to European Union upon its member states is an independent source of rights and it should not be dominated by the provisions of any domestic law relating to any member state. This case was regarding the disputes between the Italian government and the legislations relating to the European Union. It was held in this case that where the provisions of domestic law of any member state are in contradiction with the laws relating to the European union such laws must be repealed (Berry, Hargreaves and Berry, 2007). The reason behind this as regarded by the European Court of Justice is that all the member states should be viewed equally in this matter and it is also the essence of joining the European Union by the different member states (Chalmers and Szyszczak , 1998). It was made clear that in order to maintain uniformity among the member states the laws of European Union should lie supreme to the laws relating to its member states. The same thing is applicable in the case of UK also and it was found in another case, which was the case of Factortame (No 2), where it was held by the European Court of justice that it will be the responsibility of a national court to disregard any national law which is inconsistent with the legislations of EU. The case is a land mark case as it has established the fact that the doctrine of Parliamentary sovereignty will not be effective in case of legislations relating to EU. The above cases simply established the fact that the EU legislation stand superior to any other domestic or national laws relating to any member state. The above cases also projected the declaration of doctrine of Direct effect and it also stated that such powers have been transferred by the member states by entering into agreement to join the European Union that makes its laws supreme. Had there been a constitutional treaty the laws of EU would not have been supreme over the constitutional laws of the member states. Declaration (No. 17) of the Lisbon treaty once again established the fact relating to the supremacy of the EU laws. It stated that the EU law will prevail if it is conflict with any domestic or constitutional law relating to any member states (Busby and Smith, 2008). However it can be said that the erstwhile European parliament through the European Communities Act had restricted the right of future parliament in an indirect way to override its provisions, though it is fact that any later act of parliament which has been enacted can override any act that was formulated previously either expressly or impliedly. As per the theory provided by the English Constitutional lawyer, Dicey, a previously enacted act of parliament can be changed by any future act formulated by future parliament. UK formed a part of the European Union in the year 1950 and the European Community Act 1972 gave effect to the duties and obligations of UK voluntarily under the then community and now the same is being performed by the treaties of European Union under the national law. The erstwhile European Communities Act agreed the fact that UK and ECA have intense legal relationship and the same enabled the European Union to form a part of the national law. This clearly states th at the European Communities Act acted as a protection covering the parliamentary sovereignty of UK (Jacobs, Corbett and Shackleton, 1990). UK is a dualist state that implies that no teraties as implied by the government is able to change the laws relating to the state and the same can be done if such treaty is incorporated in the national law. But on the other hand the EU law states that the laws relating to European Union that are believed to have a direct effect, such as regulations and articles relating to the EU treaties will stand incorporated in the national law automatically (Wall, 1973). While there are laws that are not directly applicable to the national law, for those treaties the parliament is provided with power to consider such provisions may or may not be made by the act of parliament. However the case of 'Metric Martyrs' has made us understood that the laws of EU are not incorporated in the national law of UK. Lord Justice Laws made it clear in this case that the ECA does not give power to the Court of Justice or any institutions of EU to question the legislative supremacy of the parliament. It was also held in this case that the European Communities Act is a constitutional statute that cannot be changed by any further statutes impliedly. The relationship between UK and the EU is formed on the basis of the national laws (Brautigam, 2007). References Atlas, N., Huber, S. and Trachte-Huber, E. (2000). Alternative dispute resolution. Chicago, Ill.: Section of Litigation, ABA. Berry, E., Hargreaves, S. and Berry, E. (2007). European Union law. Oxford [England]: Oxford University Press. Bevan, A. (1992). Alternative dispute resolution. London: Sweet Maxwell. Brautigam, T. (2007). European Union Law. European Journal of International Law, 18(2), pp.377-378. Brenninkmeijer, A. (2006). Effective resolution of collective labour disputes. Groningen, The Netherlands: Europa Law Publishing. Busby, N. and Smith, R. (2008). Core EU legislation. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Chalmers, D. and Szyszczak, E. (1998). European Union law. Aldershot [u.a.]: Dartmouth [u.a.]. Davidson, F. (2000). Arbitration. Edinburgh: W. Green. Dickinson, D. (2014). Alternative dispute resolution. izawol. Fellas, J. (2011). International arbitration, 2011. New York, N.Y.: Practising Law Institute. Freeman, M. (1995). Alternative dispute resolution. New York: New York University Press. Grenig, J. (2005). Alternative dispute resolution. [St. Paul, Minn.]: Thomson/West. Hayford, S. (2000). Alternative dispute resolution. Business Horizons, 43(1), pp.2-4. Hooker, H., Usher, T. and Robinson, D. (2007). Acas helpline survey 2007. [London]: Acas. Horspool, M. (2006). European Union law. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Jacobs, F., Corbett, R. and Shackleton, M. (1990). The European Parliament. Boulder: Westview Press. Kaczorowska, A. (2009). European Union law. Abingdon, Oxon [England]: Routledge-Cavendish. Mele, C. (2011). Conflicts and value co-creation in project networks. Industrial Marketing Management, 40(8), pp.1377-1385. Wall, E. (1973). European Communities act 1972. London: Butterworths. Ware, S. (2001). Alternative dispute resolution. St. Paul, Minn.: West Group.

Friday, April 10, 2020

Style of Leadership in TESCO

Point of View TESCO is among the most profitable and largest chain of supermarkets in Britain. Improper management of the company may make it lose its current competitive advantage.Advertising We will write a custom case study sample on Style of Leadership in TESCO specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Due to this fact, it is vital for the management to adopt an effective leadership style that can help TESCO to continue enjoying its current competitive level against its competitors. Statement of the Problem Tesco focuses a lot on its customers by ensuring high levels of customer satisfaction through production and delivery satisfactory and high quality products and services. In order to maintain the desired level of performance, the company requires a well trained and knowledgeable workforce as well as an appropriate team of leadership that is capable of developing the qualities of all the members within the organization. Choosing the right staff is not a simple process since errors done during the selection process may have very adverse effects on the overall performance of the organization. For instance, selecting members of staff who are not well conversant with traditional system used by the organization can be a major disadvantage to the company in the sense that some customers who are used to the traditional processes of the company may be affected in one way or another. This may occur when the new members of staff decide to initiate new changes within the organization without ascertaining the impact of such changes. Selection of the staff depends on the type of leadership that exists within the organization.Advertising Looking for case study on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Inappropriate leadership style is likely to negatively affect the performance of an organization while an effective leadership style is definitely roves to an organization. This paper aims at finding out the style of leadership that should be employed by TESCO so that the organization can gain competitive advantage. Areas of Consideration Before deciding on the style of leadership to be adopted, it is important for the top management to consider factors such as the task to be performed and the availability of resources. Determining the manner in which the company has been operating in the past is also extremely crucial when deciding the leadership style that should be adopted. In my view, the above areas can be well addressed if the top leadership at TESCO adopts a democratic form of leadership. The latter type of leadership can offer significant contribution to the company in different ways and consequently make it easy for TESCO to realize the set goals and objectives. For example, a democratic form of leadership highlights the importance of respecting suggestions given by the employees during the decision making process. Respecting employees is one way of motivating and encouraging them in order to continue providing satisfactory services to customers. Apart from relying on the employees as a tool of improving the performance of TESCO, it is necessary for the company’s top leadership to delegate authority to other staff member in all the departments of the company.Advertising We will write a custom case study sample on Style of Leadership in TESCO specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Such a leadership style helps employees to have adequate understanding of their roles without necessarily consulting the top leadership. In some cases, it is not easy to access the top leadership especially when the leaders are out of the company for official functions. The staff tasked with the responsibility of managing the various departments within the organization should ensure that they conduct either a weekly or daily audit. This assists in identifying and providing s olutions to issues that can negatively affect the smooth running of the organization. This process should go hand in hand with inspection of other activities within the department to ensure that customers are provided with high quality services. Another important factor that should be considered is the method of communication within the organization. Democratic form of leadership helps leaders to ensure effective communication among various teams and departments. This can be achieved by holding regular meetings and making frequent staff inspection to make sure that all the members within the organization are undertaking their duties and responsibilities as required. Putting in place this kind of leadership at TESCO can greatly help the company in managing the increasing rate of competition. Alternative Courses of Action There are other alternatives that TESCO can use to reach the desired level of performance. For example, the organization can attempt to establish appropriate ways of attracting and retaining its customers.Advertising Looking for case study on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Giving gifts or discount to customers who make bulk purchases is a viable strategy of retaining customers. The company can also decide to increase the level of advertisements and promotions in order to increase the number of customers on the type of products and services offered by the company. Conclusion From the above discussion, it is evident that democratic leadership style can help TESCO to reach the desired level of performance and also meet the set goals and objectives. This form of leadership provides employees with the opportunity of airing their views during the decision making process Recommendation In my view, I believe that TESCO should use appropriate techniques when carrying out various processes (such as recruiting new employees) in the company. It is also important for the management of the company to portray a democratic style of leadership so that all the members of staff within the organization are given equal chances of expressing their views regarding the perfo rmance of the company. This case study on Style of Leadership in TESCO was written and submitted by user Ronald Nunez to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. 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Tuesday, March 10, 2020

Importance of Wait Time in Education

Importance of Wait Time in Education Wait time, in educational terms, is the time that a teacher  waits before calling on a student in class  or for an individual student to respond. For example,  teacher presenting a lesson on presidential terms of office, may ask the question, How many years can a president serve as president? The amount of time that a teacher gives students to think of the answer and raise their hands is called wait-time, and research published over forty years ago is still used to show that wait-time is a critical instructional tool. The term was first coined by Mary Budd Rowe in her research paper, Wait-time and Rewards as Instructional Variables, Their Influence in Language, Logic, and Fate Control (1972). She noted that on average, teachers paused only 1.5 seconds after asking a question; some wait only a tenth of a second. When that time was extended to three seconds, there were positive changes to students and teachers behaviors and attitudes. She explained that wait-time gave students a chance to take risks. Exploration and inquiry require students to put together ideas in new ways, to try out new thoughts, to take risks. For that they not only need time but they need a sense of being safe (4). Her report detailed several of the changes that came about when students were provided wait-time: The length and correctness of student responses increased.The number of no answers or I dont know responses by students decreased.The number  of students who volunteered answers increased greatly increased.Academic achievement test scores tended to increase. Wait Time is Think Time Rowes study had focused on elementary science teacher using data recorded over five years. She had noted a change in teacher characteristics, flexibility  in their own responses, when they purposefully allowed wait-time of three to five seconds, or even longer. In addition, the variety of questions asked in class became varied. Rowe concluded that wait-time influenced teacher expectations, and their rating of students they may have considered slow changed. She suggested that more work should be done concerning direct training of students to take time both to frame replies and to hear other students. In the 1990s, Robert Stahl from Arizona State University took up Rowes suggestion and followed up on her research. His study Using Think-time Behaviors to Promote Students Information Processing, Learning, and On-task Participation: An Instructional Model explained that wait-time was more than a simple pause in instruction. He determined that the three seconds of wait time of uninterrupted silence offered in questioning and answering was an opportunity for intellectual exercise. He found that during this uninterrupted silence, both the teacher and all students can both complete appropriate information processing tasks, feelings, oral responses, and actions. He explained that wait-time should be renamed as think-time because, Think-time names the primary academic purpose and activity of this period of silenceto allow students and the teacher to complete on-task thinking (8). Stahl also determined that there were eight categories of uninterrupted periods of silence that comprised wait-time. These categories described the wait-time immediately following a teachers question to a dramatic pause a teacher may use to emphasize an important idea or concept. Practicing Wait-time in the Classroom Despite the undisputed research, wait-time is a teaching tool that is often not practiced in the classroom. One reason may be that teachers are uncomfortable with silence after asking a question. This pause may not feel natural to wait to call on students. Taking three to five seconds, however, before calling on a student is not a lot of time. For teachers who may feel pressured to cover content or want to get through a unit, that uninterrupted silence can feel unnaturally long, especially if that pause is not a classroom norm. Another reason that teachers may feel uncomfortable with uninterrupted silence could be a lack of practice. More veteran teachers may already set their own pace for instruction which would need to be adjusted, while teachers entering the profession may not have had the opportunity to try wait-time in a classroom environment. Implementing an effective wait-time of three to five seconds is purposeful and takes practice. To better practice wait-time, some teachers implement a policy of only selecting students who raise a hand. This can be hard to enforce, especially if other teachers in the school are not requiring students to raise their hands. If a teacher is consistent and reinforces the importance of hand-raising in response to a question, students will eventually learn. Of course, teachers should realize that it is much harder to make students raise their hands if they have not required to do so from the first day of school. Other teachers may use a student lists or popsicle sticks or cards with student names to ensure that every student is called upon or that one student does not dominate the responses. Teachers also need to be aware of student expectations when implementing wait time. Students who are in competitive, upper-level courses and who may be used to quick-fire questions and answers might not initially find a benefit from wait time. In these cases, teachers would have to use their expertise and varying the amounts of time before calling on students to see if it does make a difference to either the number of students involved or the quality of the answers. Like any other instructional strategy, a teacher may need to play with wait-time to see what works best for students. While wait-time may be an uncomfortable strategy for teachers and students at first, it does get easier with practice. Teachers will notice a better quality and/or an increase in the length of responses as students to have the time to think of their answer before raising their hands. Finally, student-to-student interactions may increase as students become better able to formulate their answers. That pause of a few seconds called wait-time or think-time can make a dramatic improvement in learning.

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Terrorism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Terrorism - Essay Example Others linked it with civil disobedience while others label it as acts of violence. However, experts claimed that these three are very different terms from each other but in as much as one wished to gain adequate understanding of the word â€Å"terrorism†, it is crucial also to obtain insight about the other two terms often connected with it. Civil disobedience is deemed acceptable by many deliberative democrats as long as it remains relevantly tied to the objective of communicative action (Allen 15). However, Allen also emphasized that certain kinds of terrorism cannot be ruled out either (15). On the other hand, an individual must acknowledge that the deliberative democrat will not really be able to justify taking life as a maneuver for the reason that dead people cannot deliberate (Allen 15). Allen highlighted that this does not rule out terrorism per se, the object of which is not death so much as to bringing about fear, anxiety and trauma (Allen 15). Moreover, while a per sistent circumstance of fear would set the boundaries on forethought, restricted and transitory physical harm to individuals need not (Allen 15). For this instance, it entails that deliberative democrats must elucidate why purposely causing some physical harm to property or person is constantly an illicit and unlawful means of communication and demonstration (Allen 15). This paper endeavors to explore the concepts associated with terrorism and to tackle the impacts brought about by such circumstance. Definition, Association and the Concepts surrounding Terrorism Terrorism had always been synonymous to threat, intimidation, trauma and destruction. Individuals express anxiety whenever such term is brought up. Defining exactly what terrorism is proves to be a rather daunting task. One must also learn and understand to grasp the essence of the other terms connected with it to be able to fully obtain a clear insight about what this is as guided by certain propositions of expert and the l aw. Civil Disobedience is one of the terms confused with terrorism for the reason that some governments might label such acts as form of terrorism even though for the ones doing it, their main objective was only to find a means for their voices to be heard and for their standpoints to be given attention. Civil Disobedience is a tactic that is hard to reconcile neatly with persuasion and communication as stressed by Allen (15). Indeed, many deliberative democrats are willing to concede that civil disobedience contains some irreducible elements of threat and intimidation (Allen 15-16). Nevertheless, the deliberative democrats still supposed that it can still be accommodated within the conceptual orbit of deliberative democracy, and the priority that it gives to legitimate actions through public communication (Allen 16).